Patch & Tweak: Exploring Modular Synthesis
Patch & Tweak: Exploring Modular Synthesis by Kim Bjørn and Chris Meyer is a book about exactly that; it looks at a select history of modular synthesis as well as delving into a series of analyses of a variety of mainly Eurorack modules. It is a handy text book. It does cover other formats as well: Buchla, Serge and Moog.
It explains the building blocks of synthesis - VCOs, VCFs, VCAs, LFOs, etc., as well as having profiles on a number performing artists who expound on their philosophy and practice when it comes to composing with modular synthesis. It covers everything from the fundamentals up to the uses of a selection of commonly used Eurorack modules and their uses. Great reference book.